Seaport ECOL100 Midterm Exam 2014…………………………………………..

1. Ecology is the study of

plants.

animals.

global climate change.

relationships between organisms and their environment.

the chemistry of living things

2. Which of the following is not a renewable resource?

groundwater

trees

soil

oil

wildlife

3. Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation and distinctive animals adapted to them are called

communities

ecosystems

biomes

ecospheres

populations

4. The first law of thermodynamics tells us that

Doing work always creates heat.

Altering matter is the best source of energy.

Energy cannot be recycled.

Energy is neither created nor destroyed.

Energy cannot be converted.

5. Nature reveals three basic principles that could help transition to sustainable societies. Which of the following is NOT one of those principles?

reliance on solar energy

biodiversity

nutrient cycling

survival of the fittest

none of these answers

6. Which of the following is an example of a density dependent population control

parasites

predators

infectious diseases

competitors with high niche overlap

all of these answers

7. One way that species evolve over time to reduce niche overlap is called

competitive exclusion principle

resource partitioning

population distribution

chemical warfare

mimicry

8. Which of the following would exhibit primary succession?

a rock exposed by a retreating glacier

an abandoned farm

a clear-cut forest

newly flooded land

a recently burned forest

9. Complex feeding patters for consumers in an ecosystem are called

food webs

food chains

trophic levels

pyramids of energy

trophic chains

10. What is the primary difference between renewable resources and nonrenewable resources?

how easily they are discovered

the amount of the resource

the length of time it takes for the resource to be replenished or renewed

how fast they are being used up

the quality of the resource

11. Emigration is

the one-way movement of individuals into an established population

the one-way movement of individuals out of an uninhabited area

the one-way movement of individuals out of a population to another area

the repeated movement into and out of an area

the lack of immigration into an area

12. Parasites

harm but do not kill hosts immediately

are usually larger then their hosts

must be internal to their hosts

may strengthen their hosts over a long period of time

are usually microscopic (cannot be seen with naked eye)

13. A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause the collapse of the ecosystem, is called a(n)

foundation species

indicator species

native species

keystone species

specialist species

14. Which of the following would NOT be organic molecules?

lipids

nucleic acids

hydrocarbons

proteins

water

15. A negative feedback loop is illustrated by all of the following EXCEPT

decelerating loss of heat as a pan of hot water is removed from the stove

exponential population growth rate

sweating to cool your body during and after vigorous exercise

a thermostat maintaining a certain temperature in your house

None of the above

16. Exponential growth followed by a steady decrease in population growth until the population size levels off is typical of

logistic growth

environmental resistance

exponential growth

carrying capacity

biotic potential

17. Some individuals in a population have genetic traits that enhance their ability to survive and produce offspring, a process called

natural selection

adaptability

genetic drift

mutation

theory of acquired traits

18. Which of the following is the usual order of applying the scientific process to a problem?

hypothesis-question-observation-experimentation-conclusion-analysis

hypothesis-conclusion-question-observation-experimentation-analysis

observation-hypothesis-conclusion-experimentation-analysis-question

observation-question-hypothesis-experimentation-analysis-conclusion

hypothesis-experimentation-observation-analysis-question-conclusion

19. Large terrestrial regions with similar characteristics are

ecosystems

communities

populations

habitats

biomes

20. Each trophic level in a food chain or food web contains a certain amount of organic matter, called

food

energy

biomass

organisms

decomposition

21. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other

interspecific competition

predation

parasitism

mutualism

commensalism

22. The combination of all factors that limit population growth are known as?

physical tolerance

chemical tolerance

physical & chemical tolerance

environmental resistance

population age structure

23. Geographic isolation may result from which of the following?

volcanic eruption

river

mountain range

road

All of the above

24. Which of the following is NOT an example of an indicator species?

trout in water with a specific temperature requirement

birds that need a large forested area

butterflies that use a specific plant as food

frogs that take in water and air though their skin

All are example of indicatory species

25. Density dependence population controls means

high rate of population increase.

low rate of population increase.

population growth declines as density increases

population growth increases as density increases

all of these answers

26. Which is our best immediate energy option?

Find and burn more forms of oil, natural gas, and coal.

Cut out unnecessary energy waste by improving energy efficiency.

Build more and better conventional nuclear power plants.

Increase efforts to develop breeder nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

Discover a new form of energy.

27. The ocean zone that covers the continental shelf is the

bathyal zone

coastal zone

littoral zone

benthic zone

abyssal zone

28. In lakes, the nutrient-rich water near the shore is part of the

limnetic zone

benthic zone

littoral zone

profundal zone

abyssal zone

29. A type of inland wetland that are depressions that have been carved out by ancient glaciers are known as

floodplains

swamps

marshes

prairie potholes

arctic tundra

30. Which of the following would be characteristic of the profundal zone?

rooted plants

low oxygen levels

nourished by dead matter

main photosynthetic layer

turtles, frogs, crayfish, perch

31. Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of which of the following

phytoplankton

zooplankton

nekton

benthos

decomposers

32. The world’s second fastest growing energy resource is

hydropower

wind power

nuclear power

solar power

tidal energy

33. The deepest part of the ocean is the

abyssal zone

euphotic zone

estuary zone

bathyal zone

benthic zone

34. Widely scattered clumps of trees, warm temperatures year-round, alternating dry and wet seasons, with herds of herbivores are the characteristics of which of the following?

tall-grass prairie

temperate grasslands

temperate forest

coastal forest

savanna

35. The severity of an earthquake is a measure of its seismic waves, and is called

epicenter

focus

magnitude

ridges

valleys

36. Clear-cutting does all of the following EXCEPT

greatly increases water runoff

increases loss of soil nutrients

increases death of vegetation

increases recreation

increases pollution of streams

37. All of the following are part of the saltwater or marine aquatic life zones, EXCEPT

oceans

estuaries

inland wetlands

coastal wetlands

shorelines

38. CITES is a(n)

regulations controlling the introduction of exotic species

treaty controlling the international trade in endangered species

pact that supports critical ecosystems that support wildlife

international organization dedicated to the preservation of endangered species

policing agency for the protection of threatened species

39. Which of the following is the biggest problem for US national parks today?

huge number of park visitors

habitat destruction

invasion of alien species

pollution

all of these answers

40. Because birds live in every climate and biome, and because they are easy to track and count, they serve as excellent

keystone species

foundation species

indicator species

aesthetic indicators

habitat indicators

41. Some toxic chemicals, such as those in DDT, can be stored in the fat tissue of animals. As these animals become food for larger and larger animals, the amount of toxin gets larger and larger. This process is called

biotoxification

ecotoxification

biosystemics

biomagnification

bioremediation

42. Renewable energy resources include all of the following, EXCEPT

the sun

the wind

biomass

natural gas

water

43. Which of the following would be characteristic of a eutrophic lake?

nutrient overload from human activities

nutrients levels between the extremes of too much and too little

small supply of plant nutrients

well-supplied with nutrients for producers

excessive nutrients

44. The key factors determining the types and numbers of organisms found in the various layers of both freshwater and marine systems include all of the following, EXCEPT

parasitism

availability of nutrients

temperature

dissolved oxygen levels

availability of food

45. Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, winters are long and dark, low growing plants, permafrost are the characteristics of which of the following?

tall-grass prairie

tundra

short-grass prairie

temperate grassland

savanna

46. Organisms in this area must be able to avoid being swept away, crushed by waves, or being left high and dry at low tides, and must survive daily on seasonal salinity and temperature changes.

estuaries

coastal wetlands

bathyal zone

intertidal zone

coral reefs

47. With the Arctic warming twice as fast as the rest of the world, which of the following organisms is rapidly moving toward threatened status?

sea lions

Walrus

polar bears

Seals

arctic fox

48. A jellyfish would be considered a type of which of the following?

Benthos

Zooplankton

Nekton

phytoplankton

ultraplankton

49. On a fishing boat, someone catches a swordfish. As a biologist, you would consider this organism a type of

phytoplankton

zooplankton

nekton

benthos

decomposer

50. The weakness of electric cars is their

noise level

maintenance cost

energy-storage system

slow acceleration

price

51. The real prices of goods and services do NOT include

the cost of raw materials

the cost of manufacturing

the environmental costs of resource use

the cost of distribution

the cost of advertising

52. The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply is called

conservation

sustainable yield

preservation

recycling

all of these answers

53. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other?

interspecific competition

predation

parasitism

mutualism

commensalism

54. Which of the following statements is NOT an example of a physical change?

Confetti is cut from pieces of paper.

Water evaporates from a lake.

Ice cubes are formed in the freezer.

A plant converts carbon dioxide into carbohydrate.

A tree is cut down in the forest.

55. The organisms responsible for nitrogen fixation are

plants

animals

fungi

bacteria

viruses

56. A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to another is called

emigration

mutation

natural selection

evolution

genetic drift

57. All of the following are elements EXCEPT

water

oxygen

nitrogen

hydrogen

carbon

58. Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity, the cycling of matter, and

cycling of energy

one-way flow of energy

one-way flow of matter

the consumption of energy

the consumption of matter

59. Which of the following is a limitation of science?

use of statistical tools for estimation

human error

nothing can be absolutely proven or disproven

natural systems are very complex

all of these

60. Which of the following is an example of reuse?

re-melting aluminum cans

making compost out of kitchen scraps

using plastic butter tubs to store leftovers

using waste heat to warm a room

making paper goods from previously used paper

61. The hydrologic cycle is the movement of

carbon

hydrogen

hydrocarbons

carbohydrates

water

62. A species’ way of life in a community is its

role

habitat

ecological niche

geographical location

range

63. The typical percentage of loss of energy in transfers from one trophic level to the next is about

1%

5%

35%

60%

90%

64. Isotopes are forms of an element that differ from one another by having different

atomic numbers

numbers of electrons

numbers of protons

mass numbers

electrical charges

65. An atom or group of atoms with one or more net positive or negative charges is a(n)

base

isotope

ion

acid

none of these

66. Which of the following dispersion patterns is most likely for a population in an environment were resources are scarce?

clump

random

uniform

wide

diffuse

67. The number of different species an ecosystem contains is its

speciation

species evenness

species niche

species richness

habitat

68. The distinct piece of DNA containing instructions for making proteins is

the chromosome

the nucleotide

genes

the cell membrane

the hydrocarbon

69. Pollution includes

detergents dumped into streams

volcanoes spewing toxic gases into the atmosphere

CO2 releases from coal burning power plants

fertilizer runoff from golf courses

all of these

70. Which of the following is NOT a method predators use to capture prey?

pursuit

ambush

camouflage

chemical warfare

protective shells

71. Scientists classify energy as either

chemical or physical

kinetic or mechanical

potential or mechanical

potential or kinetic

chemical or kinetic

72. Which of the following is a way that humans alter the water cycle?

withdraw large quantities from streams, lakes, and aquifers

increase runoff by clearing vegetation from the land

increase flooding by draining and filling wetlands

all of these answers

none of these answers

73. Biodiversity includes all of the following components EXCEPT

functional diversity

genetic diversity

geomorphic diversity

ecosystem diversity

species diversity

74. These are the parts of the earth’s air, water, and soil where organisms are found.

habitat

niche

community

ecosystem

biosphere

75. For natural selection to occur, an adaptive trait

must be a physical trait

must be a physiological trait

must be a psychological trait

must be a heritable trait

must not be a heritable trait

76. The two most important factors that determine an area’s climate are

temperature and wind

temperature and precipitation

precipitation and light

light and temperature

wind and light

76. The two most important factors that determine an area’s climate are

temperature and wind

temperature and precipitation

precipitation and light

light and temperature

wind and light

77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients are

oligotrophic lakes

eutrophic lakes

culturally eutrophic lakes

hypereutrophic lakes

mesotrophic lakes

78. The most effective water heater

is an electric water tank

is a gas water heater

is an oil water heater

is a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gas

is a propane water heater

79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated by

bats

birds

insects

wind

mammals

80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat is

increase in carbon storage in oceans

spread of tropical diseases

decreased salinity of water

rising sea levels

UV radiation from ozone depletion

81. The greatest marine biodiversity is located

in the bottom region of the ocean

in the surface region of the ocean

in the coastal region of the ocean

in the open ocean

in coral reefs

82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is called

gain

loss

gross energy

profit

net energy

83. An old-growth forest would be defined as

a commercial forest older than 30 years

a forest undisturbed for at least 50 years

a second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 years

a re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 years

an uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years

84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?

formation of mountains

wind erosion

weathering

water erosion

glacial erosion

85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is the

abyssal zone

euphotic zone

estuary zone

bathyal zone

benthic zone

86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.

10

15

25

30

50

87. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is called

continual extinction

mass extinction

background extinction

local extinction

biological extinction

88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market?

United States

Australia

Great Britain

Japan

China

89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is

soil type

topography

geology

climate

landforms

90. The root cause of food insecurity is

war

political upheaval

poverty

corruption

climate change

91. The location on the earth’s surface above where an earthquake begins is called its

apex

focus

magnitude

epicenter

fault

92. The world’s single largest cause of illness is

malaria

typhoid

mosquitoes

poor health

unsafe drinking water

93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called the

crust

tectonic plate

core

mantle

magma

94. Which part of the earth’s crust makes up 71% of the crust?

oceanic crust

asthenosphere

lithosphere

continental crust

geosphere

95. Which of the following describes a local area’s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity?

climate

weather

rainshadow

thermal inversions

wind patterns

96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted

25%

58%

65%

78%

84%

97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?

habitat loss

climate change

hybridization with African honey bees

colony collapse disorder

pesticide use

98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil

1

2

5

10

25

99. Prevailing winds are the result of what?

temperature

direction the sun strikes the earth

rotation of the earth on its axis

ocean currents

sun storms

100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?

stability

inertia

constancy

stability

resilience

77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients are

oligotrophic lakes

eutrophic lakes

culturally eutrophic lakes

hypereutrophic lakes

mesotrophic lakes

78. The most effective water heater

is an electric water tank

is a gas water heater

is an oil water heater

is a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gas

is a propane water heater

79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated by

bats

birds

insects

wind

mammals

80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat is

increase in carbon storage in oceans

spread of tropical diseases

decreased salinity of water

rising sea levels

UV radiation from ozone depletion

81. The greatest marine biodiversity is located

in the bottom region of the ocean

in the surface region of the ocean

in the coastal region of the ocean

in the open ocean

in coral reefs

82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is called

gain

loss

gross energy

profit

net energy

83. An old-growth forest would be defined as

a commercial forest older than 30 years

a forest undisturbed for at least 50 years

a second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 years

a re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 years

an uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years

84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?

formation of mountains

wind erosion

weathering

water erosion

glacial erosion

85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is the

abyssal zone

euphotic zone

estuary zone

bathyal zone

benthic zone

86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.

10

15

25

30

50

87. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is called

continual extinction

mass extinction

background extinction

local extinction

biological extinction

88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market?

United States

Australia

Great Britain

Japan

China

89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is

soil type

topography

geology

climate

landforms

90. The root cause of food insecurity is

war

political upheaval

poverty

corruption

climate change

91. The location on the earth’s surface above where an earthquake begins is called its

apex

focus

magnitude

epicenter

fault

92. The world’s single largest cause of illness is

malaria

typhoid

mosquitoes

poor health

unsafe drinking water

93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called the

crust

tectonic plate

core

mantle

magma

94. Which part of the earth’s crust makes up 71% of the crust?

oceanic crust

asthenosphere

lithosphere

continental crust

geosphere

95. Which of the following describes a local area’s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity?

climate

weather

rainshadow

thermal inversions

wind patterns

96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted

25%

58%

65%

78%

84%

97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?

habitat loss

climate change

hybridization with African honey bees

colony collapse disorder

pesticide use

98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil

1

2

5

10

25

99. Prevailing winds are the result of what?

temperature

direction the sun strikes the earth

rotation of the earth on its axis

ocean currents

sun storms

100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?

stability

inertia

constancy

stability

resilience

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