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Exie for this assignment you were to analyze 5 current articles based on your topic of choice and then argue that there is a specific gap in the literature. You did very well with the analysis and identified specific pieces which were required by the assignment. Some of the material you included was in addition to the requisite portions but I believe it was necessary to present a complete picture. The argument concerning the gap in the literature wasn’t completely successful, however your reference list was vastly improved from previous assignment.

D. Reedy Score 96% 8/21/14

Article 1. Reynolds, E., Stagnitti, K., & Kidd, E. (2011). Play, language and social skills of children attending a play-based curriculum school and a traditionally structured classroom curriculum school in low socioeconomic areas

1. The researchers, in view of earlier research theories based on such play-based models as the Reggio Emilia approach and Kathy Walker’s (2007) went on to construct a play-based curriculum study after consulting with early childhood education professionals in the field Reynolds (2011, p. 121). According to Thornton and Brunton (2005), and cited by Reynolds (2011, p. 121), through the implementation of the play curriculum in the classroom, it placed emphasis on the importance of the young child’s environment in the classroom and on the playground. Key theory constructs in this study were measurements of the children’s play, language, and social skills before and after the study.docx#_msocom_1″>[DRP1]. Further, the outcome of the mediation model validating progress of developmental and learning growth in young children was dependent upon the play curriculum.

2. The researchers’ sampling in this study included children aged 4.83 to 6.16 years from two primary schools located in regional, low socioeconomic areas of Victoria, Australia. The study was conducted with the use of two classrooms-one from each of the two schools chosen for the study. The researchers measured the children’s play, language, and social skills in February, and again in August, Reynolds (2011, p. 121). Based on findings from this study, the implications were, according toReynolds (2011, p. 121, the children beginning school from low social-economic areas were at risk of failure due to skills of language and social interactions being delayed. Thus, the study’s outcome of the play curriculum, according toReynolds (2011, p. 121 indicated that there was a significant improvement in all areas assessed of the children’s developmental and learning growth.docx#_msocom_2″>[DRP2].

3. At baseline assessment the researchers had a combined sample of 31 children (mean age 5.5 years, SD 0.35years; 13 females and 18 males Reynolds (2011, p. 12). The researchers’ follow-up was a combined sample of 26 children (mean age 5.9 years, SD 0.35 years; 10 females, 16 males. The outcomes of this study according to Reynolds (2011, p. 121),the researchers found no significant difference between the school groups in play, language, social skills, age and sex at baseline assessment. Further, in comparison to norms on a standardized assessment, it was determined that all the children had begun school with delayed playability Reynolds (2011, p. 121). The researchers did a follow-up assessment showing children at the play-based curriculum school had made significant gains in all areas assessed (pvalues ranged from 0.000 to 0.05) Reynolds (2011, p. 121). Whereas the findings showed children in the school with a traditional structured classroom had made significant positive gains in use of symbols in play (p< 0.05) and semantic language (p< 0.05) Reynolds (2011, p. 121). At follow-up, there were significant differences between schools in elaborate play (p< 0.000), semantic language (p< 0.000), narrative language (p< 0.01) and social connection (p< 0.01). 4. According to the researchers’ findings, children in the play-based curriculum school had significantly higher scores in play, narrative language and language and lower scores in social disconnection. Based on the aforementioned study, play-based curricula are factors in the developmental growth and learning of young children in the early childhood education setting.docx#_msocom_3">[DRP3].

Article 2. McDermott P, Rikoon S, Fantuzzo J. Tracing children’s approaches to learning through Head Start, kindergarten, and first grade: Different pathways to different outcomes.

1. The theory of this research article researchers explored was based on works by earlier researchers in the field of early childhood education. Early childhood education and teaching were the phenomena that were different from development; yet, dependent on development and influence. The researchers in this study wanted to know if, according to the National Education Goals Panel, (1997); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2003a, 2010) and cited by McDermott (2014) if the guiding framework of America’s Head Start programs was the central role of children’s early approaches to learning in the successful attainment of school readiness skills and social adjustment. The key constructs in this theory were the inception of learning behavior concepts and its empirical definitions. The inception of learning behavior concepts and its empirical definitions were operationalized through standardized measurements that had begun with the early work of Stott, McDermott and colleagues in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States (Birrell, Phillips, & Stott, 1985; Green & Francis, 1988; McDermott, 1984; McDermott & Beitman, 1984; Stott & Albin, 1975; Stott, Green, & Francis, 1983; Stott et. al., 1988.docx#_msocom_4″>[DRP4]) McDermott (2014) and cited by McDermott (2014). Moreover, the researchers sought to identify and explicate the mechanisms or processes that had underlain the observed relationship between teaching and development.

2. The researchers in this article considered the theoretical importance of developing longitudinal scales for competence motivational and attentional persistence that was supported by the aforementioned cited work McDermott (2012). This study was conducted with an overall sample consisted of 2,152 children, many of whom were assessed twice annually over 3 years (six time points beginning in academic year 2000–2001) McDermott (2014). The overall sample consisted of 2,152 children, many of whom were assessed twice annually over 3 years (six time points beginning in academic year 2000–2001) McDermott (2014.docx#_msocom_5″>[DRP5]).

3. The children were assessed at the end of fall and spring semesters during Head Start fall n = 1,665; spring n = 1,971), kindergarten (fall n = 910; spring n = 1,135) and first grade (fall n = 581; spring n = 698). The researchers used randomly selection of the constructed sampling McDermott (2014).

4. The researchers found the overall equating sample to have reliability of EAP IRT scores for competence motivation = .79 and attentional persistence = .76. In both cases, scores sample exhibited precision to reliably discriminate between levels of learning behaviors among children scoring from approximately 2 SDs below the M ( SS = 30) up to 1 SD above the M ( SS = 60) McDermott (2014.docx#_msocom_6″>[DRP6]).

Article 3. Sutherland, S. L., & Friedman, O. (2013). Just pretending can be really learning: Children use pretend play as a source for acquiring generic knowledge

1. This article is based on researcher Ori Friedman’s research report. Sutherland andFriedman sought to better understand how and if play curricula benefitted young children in early childhood education settings. Based on earlier and ongoing studies in early childhood education particularly in play and learning curricula, Friedman’s hypotheses were the foundational theoretical perspective in this article. The key constructs in this theory were the development and consequences of learning behaviors structure and corollaries of learning behaviors within the population of young children. The constructs were related through development and consequences of learning behaviors structure causing the effect on the corollaries of learning behaviors within the population of young children. The constructs were operationalized through measurements of the theoretical concept so that it could be understood in its empirical observations.

2. Friedman’s study was to further probe into the properties of how young children learn from pretend play. Even though Friedman’s citation of the outcomes of Sutherland and Friedman (2012) indicated that children can learn generic information from pretend play, Friedman’s study was to better understand how this learning occurs. Friedman randomly assigned twenty-four children for testing ( M age = 4 years 0 months; age range from 3 years 0 months to 4 years 11 months; 11 girls and 13 boys) for this experiment. The experiments were conducted in two preschool centers. The children in the experiment randomly assigned to one of two groups; each group consisted of same-kind or different-kind, being an experimental design.

3. In the statistical analysis according to Sutherland andFriedman (2012) the preliminary analysis indicated no difference across conditions in the ages of the children that were measured in months, t(22) = 0.57, p = .574, all tests two-tailed, nor in the distribution of girls and boys; however, Fisher’s exact test, p = .414. The children scored 1 for each choice of a target (maximum score = 4). Targets were chosen by the children more when asked about nerps than about googoo birds, Mann–Whitney U test = 17.50, z = 3.30, p = .001, r = .67. The children that were asked about nerps chose targets more than would be expected by chance (88% of responses, M = 3.50, SD = 0.67), one-sample Wilcoxon signed ranks test, z = 3.04, p = .002, r = .88; children asked about googoo birds chose between targets and distractors at chance (54% of responses, M = 2.17, SD = 0.94), one-sample Wilcoxon, z = 0.63, p = .53

4. Nonetheless, those findings suggested that the children’s learnings had shown specificity to the kind represented in pretense. The researcher determined it did not extend to an unrelated or distantly related kind of animal. Further, the outcomes also showed that the children did not simply choose items that were highlighted in the pretend scenarios; but relied on the strategy that would have been preferentially chosen targets regardless of whether they were asked about nerps or googoo birds.

Article 4. Bijvoet-van den Berg, S., & Hoicka, E. (2014). Individual differences and age-related changes in divergent thinking in toddlers and preschoolers

1. Bijvoet-van den Berg and Hoicka (2014) have stated that according to Becheikh, Landry, and Amara (2006); Kaufman, Butt, Kaufman and Colbert-White (2011); van der Panne, van Beers, and Kleinknecht (2003) interests have substantially increased over the past few years in research on innovation and creativity. The theoretical perspectives of this article were cause for Bijvoet-van den Berg and Hoicka to further study the findings of previous research outcomes. The key constructs in this study were innovation and creativity. The key constructs were related through innovation having an effect on creativity; and are operationalized through measurements of study findings.docx#_msocom_7″>[DRP7].

2.The researchers conducted a repeated-design study that included children in the3- and 4-year-olds age bracket; with retesting done to determine if the study would be suitable and reliable to measure 2-year-olds. The participants were twenty-four children (13 boys; mean age = 45 months, 27 days; range = from 37 months, 1 day to 57 months, 20 days; SD = 5 months, 21 days). All children were recruited from nurseries and playgroups, Bijvoet-van den Berg and Hoicka (2014).

3. “Descriptive Statistics of Fluency and Originality Scores among All Divergent Thinking Tests in Study 1 (N = 24)”Bijvoet-van den Berg, et.al. (2014).

4. The outcomes had positive correlations between the fluency scores, as well as the originality scores, of the Unusual Box test, the Instances subtest, and the TCAM, with moderate to large effect sizes Bijvoet-van den Berg, et.al. (2014). Further, the findings suggested that similar constructs were measured by those three tests; with a marginally significant correlation being found between the fluency scores of the Unusual Box test and the Pattern Meanings subtest.

Article 5. Ferguson, C. J., Contreras, S., & Kilburn, M. (2014). Advertising and fictional media effects on healthy eating choices in early and later childhood.

1. To explore the theoretical perspective on advertising and young children health, Ferguson, Contreras, and Kilburn (2014) sought to further understand how young children’s healthy eating choices are being impacted by the media advertising unhealthy foods; and it has been a topic of concern among scholars and policy makers. The key constructs in this theory is advertising, unhealthy food choices, and young children’s health. The constructs are related through cause and effect on young children healthy eating choices being possibly impacted by the advertisements of unhealthy food choices. The constructs were operationalized through measurements of the theoretical concept of whether young children’s healthy food choices are being by advertisements so that it could be understood in its empirical observations.

2. A randomized experimental design was used for this study. The researchers selected 304 children in addition to primary caregivers. The Children’s ages ranged from 3 to 12 ( M = 7.33. SD = 2.76), with relatively even dispersal across ages; with no significant skew or kurtosis to the age distribution. 129 (42.4%) of the children were male, and 175 (57.6%) were female; and consistent with the city from which the sample was drawn Ferguson, et. al., (2014)

3. The researchers conducted all analyses using generalized linear modeling for binary outcomes; it thismethod allowed for testing of main effects for healthy content of the foods vs. unhealthy foods. The youngest category of children resulted in the generalized linear modeling that indicated a main effect for healthy content of the media viewed (? 2(1) = 4.01, p < .05, r = .20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .01, .38). No other main effects nor interactions were significant, nor was gender a significant covariate Ferguson, et. al. (2014). 4. The researchers obtained some preliminary but novel understanding of the overall results from studying the developmental process media messages relative to eating has on young children. Those findings were in accords with previous research outcomes; and further research should be considered. In Article 1.of this paper describingdescribedtheoretical concepts of the research article validating play curriculum being the focal point of the developmental growth and learning in young children. In consideration of numerous studies validating play being central in young children’s developmental growth and learning, current research data have continued to expand parents,’ educators,’ and policy makers’ knowledge; such as in article 3 with a more in-depth study of pre-tend play. The two aforementioned articles are validated through current studies on play and learning. However, a was study conducted by Howard Nicholas, and Wan Ng with The theobjective of exploring whether the task of developing drama play would either or both provide a context for creativity; and/or foster improved learning of the scientific concepts involved, Nicholas and Ng (2008, n. p.). In this mediation model the researchers sought to identify and explicate the mechanism and/or process of the observed relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Further, themoderating variable had a strong contingent effect on the independent variable-dependent variable relationship.docx#_msocom_8">[DRP8].

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