Theories of Management Essay

Managers are responsible for many things in an organization and most of them handle various situations depending on their management style. The major role of mangers is to get things done in the direction of their goals for the organization ( The management style on the other hand is the leadership method employed by a manger. There are four management styles commonly used by managers these are: directing, participating, delegating and guiding (http:

The style that a manager will use determines whether the work gets done or not. Successful mangers have the capacity to use all the management styles on their group. The situation in which the group is in always determines the management style in which the manager uses to make his/her group achieve their objectives. However, there is a style that is dominant in a manger and it might be hereditary or acquired through education or experience. Most managers learn the management styles from the theories of management.

The 20th century has seen theories changing over time starting with bureaucracy and universalism of before 1920s, human relations of 1930s and motivation of 1950s. All these theories had one common thing and that is to make employers work whether through the use of authoritarian, participative, guiding and delegating and all had advantages and disadvantages and hence theorists are still finding the most effective one to be used by modern managers.

Douglas McGregor proposes two theories, which emphasizes on employee motivation. He did not use description to identify but rather used symbols X and Y. These two theories suggest that the role of management is assembling the factors of production, which includes people, for the economic benefit of the organization (http: In this essay theory Y is discussed in detail and its implications analyzed.

McGregor in his theory Y believes that employees can only be motivated best by improving their self-esteem and self-actualization. He generalizes that work can be as natural as play or rest and believes that workers can be made to enjoy work as they enjoy play and rest. He also believes that if people become committed to their objectives they can direct themselves towards meeting these objectives and this assumptions is echoed by many managers who believe that if they make their group members committed they can perform their tasks with very minimal guidance.

McGregor further says that workers can be committed to their objectives if there are rewards such as higher pay or promotions. This is very time in many organizations and this has led many firms introduce the culture promotion by performance and hence employees always take their work very serious since they know that there are benefits in return. In fact, the reward system is a major motivation for many employees since it leads to self-fulfillment. He further beliefs that if employee are motivated they will definitely be responsible and responsibility will lead an organization to higher heights of development.

Theory Y assumes that there is an opportunity to align personal goals with organizational goals using the workers own aspirations for self-fulfillment as the motivator. McGregor further believes that some employees may be immature and therefore there is need for stricter rules, which should be relaxed gradually as they continue to mature and therefore theory Y encompasses autocratic as well as participative approaches in management.

Management implications of theory Y.

Like all other theories of management used by mangers, theory Y has some demands from the organization in order to motivate the employees these are:
Decentralization and delegation- for organization to motivate its employees it must devolve power to the employees and hence the managers will have subordinates who are directly responsible to the manager and the manager delegates some duties to them. The delegation of responsibility makes them confident and hence motivated.
Job enlargement – this theory suggests that firms broadens the working area of an employee so that there is a variety of new opportunities and responsibility and this boosts the ego of employees and thus getting committed to company goals.
Participative management – since theory Y believes that in a population there are many creative ideas, some organizations who employ this theory consult their employees before making decisions this makes the employees feel important and accepted and hence motivated.
Performance appraisals – most organizations have set goals and struggle to achieve them. These organizations involve their employees in setting these goals and also involve them in evaluating of progress towards meeting the goals. Many managers echo McGregor views since it embraces a holistic approach the uses of different management styles depending on the state of the group. This theory Y is the basis of my management style since I believe that management is getting things done by others with or without your presence. By making the employees happy a manager will ease his/her work since they will direct themselves and perform the tasks allocated to them and only ask for guidance whenever they encounter a crisis.


Management unlike leadership depends on the culture of the institution and the perception and beliefs of the manager ( For one to succeed in managing a group he/she must be flexible according to the situation at hand. A manger must recognize the potentials of his/her employees and strive to tap their talent to the maximum in order to achieve their goals. By consulting and involving as well as delegating responsibilities to junior members managers will help motivate them since this builds the confidence of the employees.

All the management theories and principles of the 20th century revolve around motivating employees in order to achieve the set goals. These theories further suggest that the style of management employed by most managers determine the degree of participation by the employees. Their style can either motivate or the employees or become a disincentive to them and hence management theories and management styles are synergistic.


Bono E. & Hellers R. Management Theories Retrieved on 14th September 2007 from

Davidmann M.2006 Style of Management and Leadership Retrieved on 14th September 2007 from


McGregor D. 2007 Human Relations Contributors Theory X and Theory Y Retrieved on 14th September 2007 from

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